The significance of the perfect tense is
discussed well by Black (Learn §72); therefore, his discussion need not
be repeated here. What we will do is briefly describe the basis ways perfect
verbs can be translated.
The perfect tense usually characterizes an action
that was completed in the past but also has continuing results in the present
(or, stated differently, it characterizes a state of completion that endures
The perfect tense is normally translated into
English with the auxiliary verb "have" or "has" coupled with
the English past participle (e.g., "found," "taught,"
h` pi,stij sou se,swke,n
Your faith has saved you (Mark 10:52).
However, oftentimes when an existing state
(resulting from a completed action in the past) is conveyed by the perfect
tense, one may translate it as though it were a present tense verb in English:
pe,poiqa de. evn kuri,w|)
I am persuaded in the Lord (Phil